Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-associated lobar intracerebral haemorrhage
Collapsed with reduced GCS 4/15.
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Large right lobar haemorrhage (frontal and parietal lobes) involving cortex, subcortical white matter and periventricular white matter. There is subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage. The haematoma has multiple finger-like projections.
Significant mass effect resulting in midline shift and obstructive hydrocephalus of the lateral ventricles.
Mild periventricular low attenuation may represent small vessel change or transependymal CSF spread.
Large right frontoparietal lobar haemorrhage with the involvement of the cortex, extension into the subarachnoid and subdural spaces. The haematoma contains multiple finger-like projections.
Lobar intracerebral haemorrhage is frequently attributed to small vessel diseases (cerebral amyloid angiopathy or arteriolosclerosis). Differentiating lobar haemorrhage due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy and arteriolosclerosis is important due to differences in recurrent ICH and post-stroke dementia risk (higher with CAA-associated ICH).
The Edinburgh CT and genetic diagnostic criteria for lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy use CT features (presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage, finger-like projections arising from the ICH) and APOE e4 genotype (if available) to classify a patient as high, intermediate or low risk of CAA-associated ICH. The initial CT shows subarachnoid haemorrhage and finger-like projections from the haematoma. The patient did not possess at least one APOE e4 allele. Therefore they are high risk for CAA-associated ICH on the Edinburgh CT and genetic diagnostic criteria for lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
The large ICH volume, combined with reduced GCS on admission, the patient's age (80 years) and intraventricular extension were poor prognostic factors (ICH score 5). The patient died the same day.
PATHOLOGY: Postmortem showed an extensive right cerebral haematoma with subarachnoid and ventricular extension. There was extensive cerebral amyloid angiopathy plus severe small vessel disease.
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