From the case: Retrocaval ureter

- “ IVP and CT demonstrate partial obstruction of the right renal collecting system with a retrocaval ureter. Renal calculi are also present, presumab...”

Used in the following articles:

  • Circumcaval ureter - “ A circumcaval ureter, or retrocaval ureter, is a developmental anomaly of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Unfortunately both terms suggest that the ...”
  • Caval variants - “ Many caval variants exist, due to the complex embryology of the venous system. These are important for a number of reasons:  not to confuse them ...”

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