Items tagged “core condition”
341 results found
Aortic intramural haematoma
Aortic intramural haematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to haemorrhage into the wall from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Typically aortic intramural haematomas are seen in older hypertensive patien...
Caecal volvulus describes torsion of the caecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and faecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Caecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat youn...
Croup, also called acute laryngotracheobronchitis is due to viral infection of the upper airway by parainfluenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). On imaging, although not required for the diagnosis, it classically presents with a narrowing of the subglottic airway and ballooning of t...
Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), also known as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, is a complication of gadolinium-based contrast agents used in imaging studies. It is characterised by "firm, erythematous, and indurated plaques of the skin associated with subcutaneous oedema" 1. Eventually, f...
Scaphoid fractures (i.e. fractures through the scaphoid bone) are common, in some instances can be difficult to diagnose, and can result in significant functional impairment. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures account for 70-80% of all carpal bone fractures 1. Although they occur essentially at a...
AAST spleen injury scale
The 1994 revision of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale is the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Classification grade I subcapsular haematoma <10% of surface area capsular laceration <1 cm depth...
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is one of the types of extra-axial intracranial haemorrhage and denotes the presence of blood within the subarachnoid space. Epidemiology Patients tend to be older middle age, typically less than 60 years old 2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage accounts for 3% of stroke ...
Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age-group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans are usually sufficient to make the diagnos...
Thoracic aortic injury
Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life ending event. Clinical presentation Approximately 80% of patients with thoracic aortic injury die at the scene of the trauma. In those who make it to hospital, clinical...
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage (PMSAH) is a distinct pattern of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which is centred on the basal cisterns around the midbrain. Epidemiology PMSAH is rare with an incidence of 0.5 in 100 000 in adults 4. PMSAH represents 5-10% of all subarachnoid haemorr...
Burst lumbar fracture
Published 24 Sep 2008
Renal vascular pedicle injury
Renal vascular pedicle injury is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognised and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney. Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognised as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal ha...
An intracerebral haemorrhage, or intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhage, is a subset of an intracranial haemorrhage. This can encompass a number of entities that share the acute accumulation of blood in the parenchyma of the brain. The aetiology, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis vary widely ...
A perforated appendix is one of the complications of acute appendicitis. If appendicitis is left untreated, ischaemic necrosis of a portion of appendiceal wall may occur, leading to perforation. An appendicolith is thought to be associated with a higher probability of perforation 1. Epidemiolog...
Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
Published 03 Jul 2009
Published 23 Aug 2009
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal condition in premature neonates. It is characterised by inflammation, ischaemia, and permeability of the neonatal bowel wall to bacteria. It is potentially life-threatening with significant associated morbidity 1. Epidemiology ...