Items tagged “emergency medicine”
117 results found
Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are a type of benign renal neoplasm encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumours with perivascular epitheloid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascul...
Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)
Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangi...
Interstitial ectopic pregnancy
Interstitial ectopic pregnancy, also known as intramural ectopic pregnancy, is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies. Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with co...
Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighbouring loop of bowel by peristalsis. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude significant sequelae including bowel necrosis. When o...
AAST kidney injury scale
The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 1,6 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
Small bowel folds (differential)
Regular, smooth generalised thickening oedema congestive cardiac failure (CCF) hypoalbuminaemia lymphatic obstruction angioneurotic oedema infection radiation ischaemia haemorrhage anticoagulation or bleeding diathesis vasculitides IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein purpura) Buerger d...
Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age-group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans are usually sufficient to make the diagnos...
Endovascular aneurysm repair
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are that they...
Cerebral venous thrombosis
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. Furthermore,...
Gunshot wound to head
Published 26 Nov 2008
Renal vascular pedicle injury
Renal vascular pedicle injury is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognised and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney. Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognised as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal ha...
Croup - steeple sign
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 22 Apr 2009
Small bowel obstruction
Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction, the remaining 20% results from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of ~5%. Clinical presentation Classical presentation is cramping abdominal pain and abdominal distension with nausea and vomi...
A perforated appendix is one of the complications of acute appendicitis. If appendicitis is left untreated, ischaemic necrosis of a portion of appendiceal wall may occur, leading to perforation. An appendicolith is thought to be associated with a higher probability of perforation 1. Epidemiolog...
Sternoclavicular joint dislocation
Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocation is rare, accounting for only ~2% of joint dislocations and especially when compared to other traumatic upper limb injuries such as clavicular fractures. Clinical presentation Most cases result from indirect trauma 5, especially high-speed motor vehicle...
Posterior dislocation of the hip
Posterior dislocations of the hip, although uncommon, are the most common direction of dislocation for this joint, outnumbering anterior dislocations 9:1. Pathology It most frequently occurs in the setting of significant trauma, given the large amount of force required. The most common scenari...
Lipohaemarthrosis of the shoulder
Published 05 Nov 2009
Colonic pseudo-obstruction (also known as Ogilvie syndrome) is a potentially fatal condition leading to an acute colonic distention without an underlying mechanical obstruction. It is defined as an acute pseudo-obstruction and dilatation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction....
Diffuse gallbladder wall thickening (differential)
Diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall can occur in a number of situations. They include: cholecystitis acute cholecystitis chronic cholecystitis gallbladder empyema 7 xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis acalculous cholecystitis postprandial physiological state (pseudothickening) sec...
Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma most commonly seen in young women. It remains common and continues to have significant morbidity in certain groups of patients. Epidemiology The incidence of acute pyelonephritis parallels that of lower urinary tr...