Items tagged “spine”

735 results found

Baastrup syndrome

Baastrup syndrome (also referred to as kissing spines) results from adjacent spinous processes in the lumbar spine rubbing against each other and resulting in hypertrophy and sclerosis with focal midline pain and tenderness relieved by flexion and aggravated by extension.  Epidemiology It tend...

Bamboo spine

Bamboo spine is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis that occurs as a result of vertebral body fusion by marginal syndesmophytes. It is often accompanied by fusion of the posterior vertebral elements as well.  A bamboo spine typically involves the thoracolumbar and/or lumbosacr...

Cervical spine fractures

Cervical spine fractures can occur secondary to exaggerated flexion or extension, or because of direct trauma or axial loading. Pathology The cervical spine is susceptible to injury because it is highly mobile with relatively small vertebral bodies and supports the head which is both heavy and...


Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumours that account for 1% of intracranial tumours and 4% of all primary bone tumours.  They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the coccyx). Since chordomas arise in ...

Dagger sign (spine)

The dagger sign is a radiographic feature seen in ankylosing spondylitis as a single central radiodense line on frontal radiographs related to ossification of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments.

Epidural lipomatosis

Epidural lipomatosis refers to an excessive accumulation of fat within the spinal epidural space, typically in the lumbar region, such that the thecal sac is compressed, and in some instances results in compressive symptoms.  Epidemiology Demographic of affected individuals reflects the underl...

Extension tear drop fracture

Extension tear drop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion, and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extensio...

Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Clinical presentation Post-traumatic neck pain after a high-velocity hyperextension injury is ...

Intervertebral disc calcification

Intervertebral disc calcification is seen with numerous conditions. degenerative: relatively common and may occur in up to 6% in routine abdominal radiographs in adults postoperative/traumatic ochronosis: very dense central (nucleus pulposus) calcification associated with osteopaenia; begins ...

Iodophenylundecylic acid

Iodophenylundecylic acid (brand name = Myodil (Glaxo)) is an oily organic iodinated contrast material which was used for myelography. It is no longer used. Residual contrast remains for years. Has been implicated in development of arachnoiditis, perhapse of the order of 1%. See also pantopaque

Jefferson fracture

Jefferson fracture is the eponymous name given to a burst fracture of C1. It was originally described as a four-part fracture with double fractures through the anterior and posterior arches, but three-part and two-part fractures have also been described. Pathology Mechanism A typical mechanis...

Low endplate signal on T1

Several conditions may give vertebral endplate T1 low signal on MRI. They include:   ankylosing spondylitis vertebral metastases disc infection haemodialysis

Os odontoideum

Os odontoideum is an anatomic variant of the odontoid process of C2 and needs to be differentiated from persistent ossiculum terminale and from a type 2 odontoid fracture. It can be associated with atlantoaxial instability.  Although it was originally thought to be a congenital lesion due to a ...

Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers  or Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Reach To Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Red Tits Don't Come Back (red-headed ti...

Schmorl nodes

Schmorl nodes, also referred as intravertebral disc herniations, refer to protrusions of the cartilage of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral body endplate and into the adjacent vertebra. The protrusions may contact the marrow of the vertebra, leading to inflammation. Clinical present...


Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities.  By definition, a scoliosis is any lateral spina...

Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...

Toothpaste sign

The toothpaste sign in spinal imaging represents an extrusion of an intervertebral disc into the epidural space. It is called after the shape of extruded material relatively to the parent disc in a sagittal plane.

Vertebral body squaring (differential)

Vertebral body squaring refers to the loss of normal concavity of the anterior border. It is seen in a variety of conditions including:  Differential diagnosis Ankylosing spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is the most common cause of vertebral body squaring. It usually involves multiple level...

L5/S1 disc extrusion

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 08 May 2008
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